Critical infrastructure is defined as the collection of public and private services that are essential to sustain government, provide for a safe living environment, maintain day-to-day business, and secure a prosperous economy. They include both public and private enterprise services such as; government operations, banking and finance, telecommunications, emergency services, gas and oil, electric and energy, water, and transportation. Presidential Directive 63
Growth in cyber threat activity is driving the need to enhance protection of data networks serving key national, state, and local infrastructure. To help meet these threats, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) has developed Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) standards, and military organizations specific Information Assurance (IA) requirements. A major focus for those providing these networks is limiting access to only authorized personnel, and ensuring rogue elements are unable to intercept and exploit network operation.